The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan’s surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted “Guided Democracy.” After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his “New Order” government. After rioting toppled Suharto in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999.

Indonesia is now the world’s third most populous democracy, the world’s largest archipelagic state, and the world’s largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Indonesian Flag

Indonesian Flag


Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

total: 1,904,569 sq km
country comparison to the world: 15
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area – comparative:
Area comparison map:

Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

54,716 km

Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 12.34%
permanent crops: 10.5%
other: 77.16% (2011)

Irrigated land:
67,220 sq km (2005)

Total renewable water resources:
2,019 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 113.3 cu km/yr (11%/19%/71%)
per capita: 517.3 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world – some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia’s most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora

Environment – current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography – note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands, some 6,000 of which are inhabited (Indonesia is the world’s largest country comprised solely of islands); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

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People & Society

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)
note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

253,609,643 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26.2% (male 33,854,520/female 32,648,568)
15-24 years: 17.1% (male 22,067,716/female 21,291,548)
25-54 years: 42.3% (male 54,500,650/female 52,723,359)
55-64 years: 6.5% (male 9,257,637/female 10,780,724)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 7,176,865/female 9,308,056) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 51 %
youth dependency ratio: 43 %
elderly dependency ratio: 8 %
potential support ratio: 12.5 (2014 est.)

Median age:

total: 29.2 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 29.8 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.95% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Birth rate:
17.04 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Death rate:
6.34 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156

Net migration rate:
-1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

urban population: 50.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:
JAKARTA (capital) 9.769 million; Surabaya 2.787 million; Bandung 2.429 million; Medan 2.118 million; Semarang 1.573 million; Palembang 1.455 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
220 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 52

Infant mortality rate:
total: 25.16 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 71
male: 29.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.17 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 69.59 years
female: 74.88 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

61.9% (2012)

Health expenditures:

2.7% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 181

Physicians density:
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 92.8% of population
rural: 75.5% of population
total: 84.3% of population
urban: 7.2% of population
rural: 24.5% of population
total: 15.7% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 73.4% of population
rural: 43.5% of population
total: 58.7% of population
urban: 26.6% of population
rural: 56.5% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
605,500 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

HIV/AIDS – deaths:
26,800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:

4.8% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 160

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
18.6% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 36

Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 143


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.8%
male: 95.6%
female: 90.1% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2011)

Child labor – children ages 5-14:
total number: 4,026,285
percentage: 7 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2009 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 22.2%
country comparison to the world: 52
male: 21.6%
female: 23% (2009)

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Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

Government type:

name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia has three time zones

Administrative divisions:
31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular – provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular – daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

17 August 1945 (declared)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002 (2013)

Legal system:
civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice
President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote – Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%

Legislative branch:
People’s Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia’s origianal 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party – PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party – PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement age; Constitutional Court judges – 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People’s Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Commission for the “Disappeared” and Victims of Violence or KontraS
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW
Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Robert O. BLAKE (since 21 November 2013); Charge d’Affaires Kristen F. BAUER (since 18 July 2013)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general: Surabaya
presence post: Medan
consular agency: Bali

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity
note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s):
garuda (mythical bird)

National anthem:
name: “Indonesia Raya” (Great Indonesia)

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Economy – overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has grown strongly since 2010. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25% and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody’s upgraded Indonesia’s credit rating to investment grade in December 2011.

Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government also faces the challenges of quelling labor unrest and reducing fuel subsidies in the face of high oil prices.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.285 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$1.22 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.149 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$867.5 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
5.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
6.2% (2012 est.)
6.5% (2011 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$5,200 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
$5,000 (2012 est.)
$4,800 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
31.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
32.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 56%
government consumption: 9.4%
investment in fixed capital: 32.7%
investment in inventories: 2%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -25.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14.3%
industry: 46.6%
services: 39.1% (2013 est.)

Agriculture – products:
rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
4.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Labor force:
120 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 38.9%
industry: 22.2%
services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate:
6.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
6.1% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
11.7% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:
36.8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 82
39.4 (2005)

revenues: $137.5 billion
expenditures: $166 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
15.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Public debt:
24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
23% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
4.3% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.37% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 57
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
12.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
11.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans

Stock of narrow money:
$82.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$87.04 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$325 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$342 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$336.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$350 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$396.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
$360.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:
-$28.72 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
-$24.07 billion (2012 est.)

$178.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$187.3 billion (2012 est.)

Exports – commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports – partners:
Japan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)

$178.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$178.7 billion (2012 est.)

Imports – commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports – partners:
China 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$83.45 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt – external:
$223.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$224.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
$207.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$192.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$17.41 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$14.81 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar –
10,341.6 (2013 est.)
9,386.63 (2012 est.)
9,090.4 (2010 est.)
10,389.9 (2009)
9,698.9 (2008)

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