Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to achieve a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths.

Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest “Orange Revolution” in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections and to become prime minister in August of 2006, and to be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH’s backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 – in favor of closer economic ties with Russia – led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv’s central square. The government’s eventual use of force to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president’s abrupt departure to Russia. An interim government under Acting President Oleksandr TURCHYNOV has scheduled new presidential elections for 25 May 2014. On 1 March 2014, one week after the overthrow in Kyiv, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. On 16 March 2014, a “referendum” was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The “referendum” was condemned as illegitimate by the Ukrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly. Russian forces now occupy Crimea and Russian authorities claim it as Russian territory. The Ukrainian Government asserts that Crimea remains part of Ukraine.




Ukrainian Flag

Ukrainian Flag


Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east

Geographic coordinates:
49 00 N, 32 00 E

Map references:

total: 603,550 sq km
country comparison to the world: 46
land: 579,330 sq km
water: 24,220 sq km

Area – comparative:
almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,566 km
border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 940 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (south) 176 km, Romania (southwest) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km

2,782 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation

temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 53.85%
permanent crops: 1.48%
other: 44.67% (2011)

Irrigated land:
21,750 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources:
139.6 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 19.24 cu km/yr (24%/69%/7%)
per capita: 415.7 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards:

Environment – current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl’ Nuclear Power Plant

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

Geography – note:
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

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People & Society

noun: Ukrainian(s)
adjective: Ukrainian

Ethnic groups:
Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)

Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian (regional language) 24%, other (includes small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 9%
note: 2012 legislation enables a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast’s population to be given the status of “regional language,” allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions; Ukrainian remains the country’s only official nationwide language

Orthodox (includes Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC), Ukrainian Orthodox – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), Ukrainian Orthodox – Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP), Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish
note: Ukraine’s population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority – up to two-thirds – identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country’s population, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)

44,291,413 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14% (male 3,191,247/female 3,013,575)
15-24 years: 11.5% (male 2,610,172/female 2,501,795)
25-54 years: 45% (male 9,639,882/female 10,274,240)
55-64 years: 15.9% (male 2,581,380/female 3,433,568)
65 years and over: 15.6% (male 2,310,652/female 4,734,902) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 42 %
youth dependency ratio: 20.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 21.2 %
potential support ratio: 4.7 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total: 40.6 years
male: 37.3 years
female: 43.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.64% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 226

Birth rate:
9.41 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203

Death rate:
15.72 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Net migration rate:
-0.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113

urban population: 68.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: -0.26% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:
KYIV (capital) 2.829 million; Kharkiv 1.451 million; Dnipropetrovsk 994,000; Odesa 1.01 million; Donetsk 959,000; Zaporizhzhya 771,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother’s mean age at first birth:
25.8 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
32 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 121

Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 154
male: 10.13 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.14 years
country comparison to the world: 156
male: 63.78 years
female: 74.86 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.3 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
66.7% (2007)

Health expenditures:
7.3% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 77

Physicians density:
3.52 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density:
8.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
urban: 98.1% of population
rural: 97.7% of population
total: 98% of population
urban: 1.9% of population
rural: 2.3% of population
total: 2% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 96.5% of population
rural: 89.4% of population
total: 94.3% of population
urban: 3.5% of population
rural: 10.6% of population
total: 5.7% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
0.9% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
230,500 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

HIV/AIDS – deaths:
18,100 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
21.3% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 89

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
0.9% (2002)
country comparison to the world: 134

Education expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 35

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2012)

Child labor – children ages 5-14:
total number: 356,213
percentage: 7 % (2005 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 17.3%
country comparison to the world: 72
male: 18.1%
female: 16.1% (2012)

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Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ukraine
local long form: none
local short form: Ukrayina
former: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:

name: Kyiv (Kiev)
note: pronounced KAY-yiv
geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (oblasti, singular – oblast’), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular – misto) with oblast status**; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol’), Dnipropetrovs’k, Donets’k, Ivano-Frankivs’k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel’nyts’kyy, Kirovohrad, Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans’k, L’viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol’**, Sumy, Ternopil’, Vinnytsya, Volyn’ (Luts’k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr
note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
note 2: the United States does not recognize Russia’s annexation of Ukraine’s Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol

24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus), 1648 (establishment of Cossack Hetmanate)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note – 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence (from Soviet Russia) and the day the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern) Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day

several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996; amended 2004, 2010; note – to revert to the 2004 version pending additional constitutional reforms (2014)

Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Acting President Oleksandr TURCHYNOV (since 23 February 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Arseniy YATSENYUK (since 27 February 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Vitaliy YAREMA, Deputy Prime Ministers Volodymyr HROYSMAN and Oleksandr SYCH (all since 27 February 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Petro POROSHENKO elected president; percent of vote – Petro POROSHENKO 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO 8.4%, other 24.2%; note – innauguration date has not yet been set

Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 50% of seats allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 5% or more of the national electoral vote and 50% to members elected in single mandate districts; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 October 2012 (next to be held fall 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party – Party of Regions 30%, Batkivshchyna 25.5%, UDAR 14%, CPU 13.2%, Svoboda 10.4%, other parties 6.9%; seats by party – Party of Regions 185, Batkivshchyna 101, UDAR 40, Svoboda 37, CPU 32, United Center 3, People’s Party 2, Radical 1, Union 1, independents 43, vacant 5; composition as of early April 2014 – Party of Regions 120, Batkivshchyna 88, UDAR 42, “Economic Development” group 36, “Sovereign European Ukraine” group 36, Svoboda 35, CPU 32, independents 59, vacant 2

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Ukraine (consists of 95 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, and administrative chambers, and a military panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice or SCJ (a 20-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees) and appointed by presidential decree; judges initially appointed for 5 years and, if approved by the SCJ, serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed – 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: specialized high courts; Courts of Cassation; Courts of Appeal; regional, district, city, and town courts

Political parties and leaders:
Batkivshchyna (“Fatherland”) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]
Party of Regions [vacant]
People’s Movement of Ukraine (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]
People’s Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]
Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ]
Svoboda (“Freedom”) [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reforms or UDAR [Vitaliy KLYCHKO]
Union [Lev MIRIMSKY]
United Center [Viktor BALOHA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Committee of Voters of Ukraine [Oleksandr CHERNENKO]

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter although it participates in meetings), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Oleksandr MOTSYK (since 24 June 2010)
chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Geoffrey R. PYATT (since 30 July 2013)
embassy: 4 Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv
mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000
FAX: [380] (44) 521-5155

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky

National symbol(s):
trident (tryzub)

National anthem:
name: “Shche ne vmerla Ukraina” (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)
lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI
note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; the song was first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003


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Economy – overview:
After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of the former USSR. Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Ukraine’s dependence on Russia for energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. Ukraine depends on imports to meet about three-fourths of its annual oil and natural gas requirements and 100% of its nuclear fuel needs. After a two-week dispute that saw gas supplies cutoff to Europe, Ukraine agreed to 10-year gas supply and transit contracts with Russia in January 2009 that brought gas prices to “world” levels. The strict terms of the contracts have further hobbled Ukraine’s cash-strapped state gas company, Naftohaz. Outside institutions – particularly the IMF – have encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine’s large shadow economy, but more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework. Ukraine’s economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president until mid-2008. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia’s lease on its naval base in Crimea. Movement toward an Association Agreement with the European Union, which would commit Ukraine to economic and financial reforms in exchange for preferential access to EU markets, was curtailed by the November 2013 decision of President YANUKOVYCH against signing this treaty. In response, on 17 December 2013 President YANUKOVYCH and President PUTIN concluded a financial assistance package containing $15 billion in loans and lower gas prices. However, the end of the YANUKOVYCH government in February 2014 caused Russia to halt further funding. With the formation of an interim government in late February 2014, the international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a 27 March 2014 IMF assistance package of $14-18 billion.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$337.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
$336.1 billion (2012 est.)
$335.6 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$175.5 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
0.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
0.2% (2012 est.)
5.2% (2011 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$7,400 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$7,400 (2012 est.)
$7,400 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
10.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
10.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
14.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 72%
government consumption: 18.6%
investment in fixed capital: 17.8%
investment in inventories: -1.1%
exports of goods and services: 49.6%
imports of goods and services: -56.9%
(2013 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 9.9%
industry: 29.6%
services: 60.5%
(2013 est.)

Agriculture – products:
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk

coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing

Industrial production growth rate:
-5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Labor force:
22.17 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 5.6%
industry: 26%
services: 68.4%

Unemployment rate:
8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
7.5% (2012 est.)
note: officially registered; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers

Population below poverty line:
24.1% (2010)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income – Gini index:
28.2 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 124
29 (1999)

revenues: $57.4 billion
expenditures: $66.5 billion
note: this is the planned, consolidated budget (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
32.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Public debt:
40.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
36.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
0.6% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
7.5% (31 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
11.97% (31 December 2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
16% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
18.39% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$39.94 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$40.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$100.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$96.48 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$130.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$129.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$25.56 billion (31 December 2011)
$39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:
-$11.92 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
-$14.32 billion (2012 est.)

$71.14 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$70.24 billion (2012 est.)

Exports – commodities:
ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products

Exports – partners:
Russia 25.6%, Turkey 5.4%, Egypt 4.2% (2012)

$87.21 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$89.71 billion (2012 est.)

Imports – commodities:
energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Imports – partners:
Russia 32.4%, China 9.3%, Germany 8%, Belarus 6%, Poland 4.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$21.95 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$24.55 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt – external:
$138.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$136.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
$61.46 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$54.46 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$8.604 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$8.104 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar –
8.195 (2013 est.)
7.991 (2012 est.)
7.9356 (2010 est.)
7.7912 (2009)
4.9523 (2008)

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